Mechanical Efficiency of Gas Turbine Engine Sample

The gas turbine engine, as well as the piston engine, refers to internal combustion engines. They convert the chemical energy of fuel into heat by burning, and then heat is converted into useful mechanical energy. However, the way this happens is somewhat different. In both turbine and piston engines, there are four main processes. These are: fence, compression, expansion, and exhaust. In any case, the engine first enters the air (from the atmosphere) and fuel (from the tanks), then the air is compressed and fuel is injected into it, after which the mixture is ignited, which greatly expands, and is eventually released into the atmosphere. From all these actions, only expansion gives out energy, but the rest are necessary to ensure this action.

In gas turbine engines, these processes occur constantly and simultaneously, but in different parts of the engine, unlike a piston engine (all these processes in a piston engine occur in one place), but at different moments of time and in turn. In addition, the more compressed the air, the more energy can be obtained during combustion, and the compression ratio of gas turbine engines has reached 35-40:1. During the passage through the engine, the air decreases in volume, and accordingly increases its pressure by 35-40 times. For comparison, in piston engines this value does not exceed 8-9:1 in the most modern and sophisticated samples. Accordingly, having equal weight and dimensions in the gas turbine engine is much more powerful, and its efficiency is higher. This is precisely the reason for the widespread use of gas turbine engines in aviation today.

mechanical efficiency of gas turbine

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of Gas Turbine Engine [2]

Four basic processes occur in the engine, which is shown simplified in Figure 1, above:

– air intake
– compression
– mixing and ignition inside combustion chamber
– exhaust

As can be seen, the turbine is an integral part of any gas turbine engine. Its purpose is to obtain energy from gases that exit the combustion chamber at high speeds, and it is located on the same shaft with the compressor which drives it.

Thus, a closed loop appears. The air enters the engine, shrinks, mixes with fuel, ignites, and is sent to the turbine blades, which remove up to 80% of the gas to rotate the compressor. The final output of engine power can be used in different ways.

Such engines are very popular in aircraft vehicles. The example of the airplane Gas Turbine Engine is shown on Figure 2, below:

Mechanical Efficiency of Gas Turbine Sample

Figure 2 – Typical aircraft Gas Turbine Engine [1]

References

En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Turboshaft. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turboshaft [Accessed 6 Jun. 2019].
Seals.saint-gobain.com. (2019). Jet Engine Turbofan | Aerospace Gas Turbine Engine | Saint-Gobain Seals. [online] Available at: https://www.seals.saint-gobain.com/markets /aerospace/gas-turbine-engines/jet-engine-turbofan [Accessed 6 Jun. 2019].

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